The interest chain behind the dispute between the

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The interest chain behind the dispute between medical glass bottles and plastic bottles

the advantages and disadvantages of medical glass packaging and plastic packaging have a long history. After sorting out all kinds of relevant information published in various media, you will find that the sound of using plastic packaging to replace glass packaging has an absolute advantage. The reality is the same. The share of glass packaging in medical packaging is decreasing year by year and is accelerating, Glass packaging is being replaced by plastic packaging. The replacement of seemingly simple medical packaging materials is not a simple problem. Why are medical glass infusion bottles with excellent performance and good quality and low price rejected? The root cause is driven by the economic interests of the upstream and downstream of the industrial chain. The struggle between plastic packaging and glass packaging is a struggle between the strong and weak between pharmaceutical enterprises and glass packaging enterprises

I. current situation of medical glass infusion bottles

the packaging of medical glass infusion bottles has a history of 100 years. Glass products made of inorganic materials fired at 1600 ℃ as medical containers have the characteristics of bright and clean, easy disinfection, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, dimensional stability, excellent chemical stability, non-toxic and harmless, and are traditional pharmaceutical packaging materials. After the advent of plastic packaging products, they have been widely used in the packaging of pharmaceutical products, and won part of the market with the characteristics of light weight, not easy to crack, easy to transport and so on. At the initial stage of plastic packaging application, pharmaceutical enterprises' packaging products were outsourced, and the selection of packaging materials basically reflected the requirements of price and performance. The application of glass and plastic materials complemented each other, promoting the diversified development of pharmaceutical packaging materials. With the development of pharmaceutical enterprises to collectivization, the competition between enterprises also extends from product competition to the upstream and downstream of the industrial chain. Collectivized pharmaceutical enterprises have established plastic packaging products workshops, and the production of packaging products has become an important part of their production and management and an important means of market competition. The use of new packaging materials provides pharmaceutical enterprises with new opportunities to set prices. Due to the adoption of self-supporting production mode, the competition between the industry is avoided, just like setting up a natural barrier and forming a protective price. The production of packaging products has become an important source of profit for enterprises. At the same time, the cost shared by medical units in purchasing drugs is calculated according to the purchase price. Driven by economic interests, medical units will naturally choose products with plastic packaging. This kind of interest connection between pharmaceutical enterprises and medical units is like a pair of invisible hands strangling the market of glass pharmaceutical packaging. From the current use of medical glass infusion bottles, the proportion of plastic packaging used by urban medical and health units is much higher than that of rural medical and health units. The reason is very simple. The government and social medical insurance institutions pay for public medical treatment or social planning; In rural areas, patients pay out of their own pockets. Due to the different audiences, there are also two standards for the use of medical packaging materials. In the final analysis, choosing which packaging materials is only a means of market competition for service enterprises

II. Analysis of the advantages of medical glass infusion bottles

as mentioned above, medical glass infusion bottles have stable physical properties, are non-toxic and harmless, and will not react with drugs. They are the best medical packaging products. However, the interaction between plastic infusion bottles and many drug solutions is unknown, which still needs long-term clinical practice verification, and its adverse reactions and toxic and side effects have not been thoroughly clarified. At present, some adverse reactions have been disclosed: according to the US magazine environmental watch, a synthetic chemical widely existing in plastic packaging materials may harm the reproductive organs of male infants and affect the sexual development of children. Almost at the same time, a paper published by endocrine monthly disclosed that it is convenient for customers to use. Another chemical mixed in plastic products may cause women to suffer from breast cancer. Although these research results still need to be observed, glass is obviously superior to plastic products in terms of chemical stability of glass and plastic. At the same time, we should also see that the same medical glass packaging products cannot be generalized due to different uses. There is no dispute that the tablets and capsules are packed in plastic bottles. Unlike the medical infusion bottles, the liquid medicine directly enters the body circulation system through intravenous injection, which is directly related to the health of patients. The safety and reliability of the packaging is more important

medical packaging choose plastic instead of glass, because there is something fishy among them

read various newspapers and browse relevant stations, and scan various views that advocate the use of plastic medical infusion bottles and restrict the use of glass medical infusion bottles. There are mainly the following views: first, plastic medical infusion bottles have light weight, are not easy to crack, and are easy to transport and store; Second, it can avoid cross infection caused by the secondary use of glass medical infusion bottles into the market; Third, plastic medical infusion bottles are widely used in developed countries instead of glass medical infusion bottles; Fourth, the glass industry consumes high energy and emissions cause environmental pollution. Although the above four points of view reflect the characteristics of plastic medical infusion bottles, foreign applications and the production status of the glass industry, they are one-sided and cannot be the reason for restricting the use of medical glass infusion bottle packaging

as we all know, medical infusion bottles are a special commodity, and safety should become the primary condition to decide whether to choose or not. Although the glass medical infusion bottle has short items that are easy to break and heavy, its safe, non-toxic and harmless performance is difficult to replace, the cost advantage is also very prominent, and the glass is resistant to high temperature and does not deform, which is impossible for plastic products. The precipitation of plastic additives and polymer monomers is harmful to human body, especially at high temperature. Plastic will deform below 100 ℃ and cannot be sterilized at high temperature, so the Pharmacopoeia has strict restrictions on its use. As for the cross infection that may be caused by the secondary use of glass medical infusion bottles into the market, the use of plastic medical infusion bottles also exists, and the functions of plastic medical testing machines, which use waste logistics to enter the market to cause pollution, have also been reported in the press, and the key is management. As for the view that plastic medical infusion bottles are widely used in developed countries, it is also questionable. It is an indisputable fact that plastic medical infusion bottles are widely used in developed countries, but the reason for promoting the use of plastic medical infusion bottles is far fetched, and the fundamental point is to ignore the national conditions. China has a large population, backward economic development, and the per capita income level is far lower than that of developed countries. Under the premise of ensuring safety, economy must be considered. However, glass medical infusion bottles show great price. Shanghai chlor alkali and Bayer material technology make effective use of resource advantages. According to the investigation of Wuhan Huaxia glass products Co., Ltd. on the unit price of two kinds of medical infusion bottles of 100ml, 250ml and 500ml in the market and the wholesale price of glucose infusion in different packages, It can be seen that there are obvious price differences (see attached Tables 1 and 2):

attached table 1: unit price of plastic and glass bottles


material 100ml 250ml 500ml

glass bottles (yuan/piece) 0.22 0.33 0.50

plastic bottles (yuan/piece) 0.75 0.95 1.15

attached table 2: wholesale unit price of glucose infusion in Hubei region


material 100ml 250ml 500ml

glass bottles (yuan 1.37 1.59 2.37

plastic bottle (yuan/piece) 2.10 2.76 3.12

from the above data, it can be seen that the price difference between glass bottles and plastic bottles of the same specification is 0.5 ~ 0.65 yuan; The price difference between different packages of glucose infusion of the same specification is also 0.7 ~ 0.75 yuan. Even after deducting the cost of increasing sampling in glass bottle packaging and transportation, its economy is also very prominent. For a large country with a population of 1.3 billion, if all glass bottles are used, the annual saved medical expenses are extremely considerable. According to the statistics of relevant medical system data, the annual saved medical expenses for the country can be 6billion yuan. Such things that benefit the country and the people should be valued and supported by the government, medical management and medical planning institutions

in recent years, the production technology level of the domestic glass industry has generally improved, the new energy-saving kiln technology has been popularized and applied, the working environment of the production site has been greatly improved, the energy consumption per ton of material has been greatly reduced, and the face of the industry has changed greatly. In particular, gratifying results have been achieved in the recycling of waste glass. According to the analysis of industry experts, if the recycling rate of waste glass is increased to 50%, its production energy consumption can be reduced by 10%. Glass is a resource that can be reused up to 100%. The stable physical and chemical properties determine the safety and reliability of its reuse. Waste glass needs to be melted at a high temperature above 1600 ℃ in the production process, and its disinfection and sterilization effect is very reliable. No matter from the aspects of economy, safety and resource recycling, glass medical glass infusion bottles have irreplaceable advantages

under the guidance of the scientific concept of development, making the best use of limited material resources, establishing a circular economy society and promoting sustainable development have become major issues of social and economic development. To establish a circular economy society, we need to think about issues at the level of building a national economic circular economy system and promote the development of the industry. The raw material of plastic is petroleum, which is a non renewable resource, while the raw material of glass is quartz sand, which is very rich in domestic resources; Although the energy consumption of bottle making production is low, the comprehensive energy consumption of producing 1 ton of plastic is 5 ~ 8 tons of oil, while that of glass is only 0.5 tons; Plastics degrade in the natural environment for a long time, which is a very harmful pollutant, while glass is harmless to the environment, renewable, and recognized as an environmentally friendly material

the dispute between medical glass and plastic packaging seems to be a simple market competition, but in fact, it masks the unfair competition driven by huge interests. As a supporting enterprise of pharmaceutical enterprises, glass infusion bottle manufacturers are in a subordinate position and have no say at all. Driven by huge interests, pharmaceutical enterprises and medical units have vigorously promoted plastic packaging, which has worsened the living environment of glass pharmaceutical packaging enterprises and made them walk hard

III. policy suggestions for promoting the use of glass infusion bottles

as mentioned above, promoting the use of glass infusion bottles benefits the country and the people. The biggest obstacle is that pharmaceutical enterprises and medical and health units are driven by interests, and use their production and management rights and procurement management rights to strangle the glass infusion bottle market. It can be said that this is a competition between the strong and the weak. The efforts of glass enterprises alone are in vain, and there is no chance of victory at all. At the national glass industry technical information exchange conference held not long ago, the factory directors and managers of some glass enterprises called for restrictions on the use of plastic infusion bottles (bags), and suggested that the relevant departments formulate fair management rules to limit unfair competition and protect the survival and development of glass packaging enterprises

they suggested that the use of plastic infusion bottles (bags) should be restricted in the medical security and the new rural medical drug procurement catalogue, and the cost of drug packaging should be strictly controlled, so as to create a fair competitive environment for enterprises producing glass infusion bottles, and make high-quality and low-cost glass bottle packaging the first choice for government procurement. According to the survey, Hunan Province has similar regulations, which have played a great role in reducing medical costs. In normal clinical practice, glass infusion packaging is advocated, and drugs that exceed the specified packaging cost are paid at their own expense

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